TCP OR IP
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and IP (Internet
Protocol) are two different protocols that work together to provide reliable,
error-free data transfer over the internet.
TCP is a transport layer protocol that provides
reliable, error-free data transfer by using flow control and error correction
mechanisms. It establishes a reliable connection between two devices and
ensures that all data is received correctly. It uses a three-way handshake to
establish a connection and uses sequence numbers and acknowledgment messages
to ensure that all data is received in the correct order.
IP is an internet layer protocol that provides
addressing and routing services for data packets. It is a connectionless
protocol that is responsible for routing data packets to their destination
based on their IP address. IP packets are independent units of data that do not
establish a connection before transmitting data.
In summary, TCP is responsible for ensuring that
data is transmitted reliably and correctly, while IP is responsible for
addressing and routing data packets to their destination. They work together to
provide fundamental communication services for the internet.
**NOTE:- The Internet Protocol Suite is
designed in such a way that it cannot be owned by anyone. This means that it
cannot be the sole property of any private company and can be used by anyone in
the world. As a result, lots of different network companies started to support
the internet protocol.
The OSI model layers correspond in the following pattern
The network access
layer responds to the physical and data link layers of the OSI model.
The Internet layer corresponds to the OS1 network layer. The
duty of the protocols at this layer is to transfer packets through the network.
The main Internet layer protocol
The host-to-host layer corresponds roughly to the OSI transport layer.
At this layer, protocols communicate with peer processes in other hosts or
Tine process/application layer corresponds to the
OSI session, presentation, and application layers. In this layer, the protocols
provide application services on the network. Examples of protocols are Telnet
(a terminal emulator) and FTP (File Transfer Protocol).
As the IP suite does not include lower-layer protocols, we shall discuss the
individual protocols at the middle layers.
The duty of the network and transport layer of the OSI model is to transport
packets across the internetwork. For network addressing the TCP and other IPs uses
three types of address. These are as follows
(a) Physical layers and data link uses Hardware or
physical address. Physical addresses are usually hard-coded into the network
cards with each device.
(b) IP addresses provide logical node IDs. They are expressed
in four-part dotted-decimal
(c) IP addresses are more complex to remember than logical names, For example,
SUJAYMRIDHA.COM. Every layer of TCP or IP suite has its own component protocol.
(i) Application layer
application layer is the topmost layer of the OSI (Open Systems
Interconnection) model and it is the interface between the application software
and the network. It is responsible for providing services to the application
software and controlling the communication between the application software and
the network. Some of the commonly used application layer protocols are:
(Hypertext Transfer Protocol) – It is used for the transfer of web pages and
other information over the internet.
(HTTP Secure) – It is an extension of HTTP that provides secure communication
by encrypting the data being transferred.
(File Transfer Protocol) – It is used for the transfer of files between
computers over a network.
(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) – It is used for the transfer of email messages
over the internet.
(Domain Name System) – It is used to translate domain names into IP addresses,
allowing users to access websites using human-friendly domain names.
– It allows users to remotely access a computer and execute commands as if they
were sitting in front of the computer.
(Secure Shell) – It is a secure alternative to Telnet that encrypts all data
being transferred, providing secure remote access to a computer.
(Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) – It is used to assign IP addresses to
devices on a network dynamically.
(Simple Network Management Protocol) – It is used for the management and
monitoring of network devices.
(Network Time Protocol) – It is used to synchronize the clock of the devices on
a network with a reference clock.
These protocols are widely used in different types of
applications and services that run on the internet, such as web browsing,
email, file transfer, and network management.
(ii) Transport layer
protocols: The transport layer is the fourth layer of the OSI (Open Systems
Interconnection) model and it is responsible for providing reliable and
efficient data transfer between devices on a network. It sits between the
application layer and the network layer and provides end-to-end communication
between applications running on different devices. Some of the commonly used
transport layer protocols are:
TCP (Transmission Control
Protocol) – It is a connection-oriented protocol that provides reliable,
error-free data transfer by using flow control and error correction mechanisms.
(iii) Internet layer
protocols: The internet layer is the third layer of
the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model and it is responsible for
providing end-to-end communication between devices on a network by routing data
packets to their destination. It sits between the transport layer and the
network layer and provides the fundamental communication services for the
internet. Some of the commonly used internet layer protocols are:
IP (Internet Protocol) – It is a connectionless
protocol that provides addressing and routing services for data packets,
allowing them to reach their destination.
(iv) Network layer protocols: The network layer is the second layer of the
OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model, and it is responsible for providing
logical addressing and routing services for data packets. It sits between the
internet layer and the data link layer, and it provides the means for data to
travel between devices on different networks. Some of the commonly used network
layer protocols are:
(Internet Protocol) – It is a connectionless protocol that provides addressing
and routing services for data packets, allowing them to reach their
**NOTE:- TCP/IP is a protocol suite that is constantly evolving and whose development is
steered by such bodies as the Internet Society (ISOC), the Internet
Architecture Board (IAB), and the Internet Engineering Task Force (ETF ). The
current version of TCPRP is Called IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4). A new
version called IPv6 is under implementation.